Cassidy Johns Chitali on photos age 36.
Dear Ladies and gentlemen,
Generally, Luanda has been experiencing a pandemic of Pink Eye for the past 3 months due reasons un revealed by the ministry of health. The people are now looking diiferent from when they did not suffer from it. They now have terible new shapes of faces and others are loosing eyes now using artficial ones. The conjuctivitus or pink eye is too strong to be eliminated from angola has spread so much that just an appearance in town and get wind off from one who is sick gets to your eyes and begin to infect your eyes. The ministry of health is not doing anything to avoid, curb, solve this problem which is why I have written to you to help us in any way possible probably finding the right medicine to be provided especially to innocent people and poorer people. Luanda is really hot with conjuctivitus and many people are very worried they are calling it as ZAPE.
To this end, I write to the World Healthy Organisation and all the people recieving to seek your assistance in providing a permanent solution i.e medication because certain people are not able and can not afford to buy the medicine. Roomers have it that government authorities in angola are not clearly sure how the disease started hence are innocent and the people are having dead eyes especially poor and un educated people. Certain youths are trying to refrain from infected friends but sooner also get infested.
Conjunctivitis — Where Does Pink Eye Come From?
The eye infection conjunctivitis, also commonly known as pink eye, is shrouded in misconception. Â While there are many rumors and theories about how pink eye is contracted, there are really only three ways that the condition can develop. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the clear membrane of the eye, called the conjunctiva, and it can be caused by bacterial or viral infections, severe allergies, or in infants, an ear duct malformation. The inflammation causes the blood vessels of the eye to become irritated and expand, which is what causes the red shade of the eyes.
The main symptoms of conjunctivitis are red, itchy eyes. Because there are several different ways that you can catch conjunctivitis due to its many modes of transfer, it is considered to be an extremely contagious condition. There are many ways to relieve the discomfort, but it is very important to avoid rubbing of the eyes due to the highly contagious nature of the infection.
While conjunctivitis can be extremely uncomfortable, it rarely affects vision. If you suspect your or your child is suffering from a pink eye infection, speak with your doctor about your conjucntivitis treatment options. He or she will likely be able to prescribe medicated drops to help clear the infection and prevent contamination. They will also be able to advise ways to ease the itch and discomfort of conjunctivitis in order to support a speedy recovery.
Conjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye, is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin, clear tissue that lies over the white part of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelid.
Pinkeye has a number of different causes, including:
- Bacteria (such as gonorrhea or chlamydia)
- Irritants such as shampoos, dirt, smoke, and pool chlorine
- Allergies, like dust, pollen, or a special type of allergy that affects some contact lens wearers
Pinkeye caused by some bacteria and viruses can spread easily from person to person, but are not a serious health risk if diagnosed promptly. Pinkeye in newborn babies, however, should be reported to a doctor immediately.
What Are the Symptoms of Pinkeye?
The symptoms of pinkeye differ based on the cause of the inflammation, but may include:
- Redness in the white of the eye or inner eyelid.
- Increased amount of tears.
- Thick yellow discharge that crusts over the eyelashes, especially after sleep.
- Green or white discharge from the eye.
- Itchy eyes.
- Burning eyes.
- Blurred vision.
- Increased sensitivity to light.
See your eye doctor if you have any of these symptoms of pinkeye. He or she will conduct an exam of your eyes and may take a sample of fluid from the eyelid using a cotton swab to be analyzed in a lab. Bacteria or viruses that may have caused conjunctivitis, including a sexually transmitted disease or STD, can then be identified and proper treatment prescribed.
How Is Pinkeye Treated?
The treatment for pinkeye depends on the cause.
- Bacteria. Pinkeye caused by bacteria, including STDs, is treated with antibiotics, in the form of eye drops, ointments, or pills. Eye drops or ointments may need to be applied to the inside of the eyelid three to four times a day for five to seven days. Pills may need to be taken for several days. The infection should improve within a week. Take the medicine as instructed by your doctor, even if the symptoms go away.
- Viruses. This type of pinkeye often results from the viruses that cause a common cold. Just as a cold must run its course, so must this form of pinkeye, which usually lasts from four to seven days. Viral conjunctivitis can be highly contagious. Avoid contact with others and wash hands frequently.
- Irritants. For pinkeye caused by an irritating substance, use water to wash the substance from the eye for five minutes. Your eyes should begin to improve within four hours after washing away the substance. If the conjunctivitis is caused by acid or alkaline material such as bleach, call your doctor.
- Allergies. Allergy-associated conjunctivitis should improve once the allergy is treated and the allergen removed. See your doctor if you have conjunctivitis that is linked to an allergy.
What Can I Do to Relieve Symptoms of Pinkeye?
To relieve the symptoms of pinkeye:
- Protect your eyes from dirt and other irritating substances.
- Avoid the use of makeup.
- Remove contact lenses, if you wear them.
- Non-prescription “artificial tears,” a type of eye drops, may help relieve itching and burning from the irritating substances causing your pinkeye. However, other types of eye drops may irritate the eyes and should not be used. Note: Do not use the same bottle of drops in an uninfected eye.
How Can I Prevent Spreading Pinkeye?
If you or your child has pinkeye:
- Don’t touch or rub the infected eye(s).
- Wash your hands often with soap and warm water.
- Wash any discharge from your eyes several times a day using a fresh cotton ball or paper towel. Afterwards, discard the cotton ball or paper towel and wash your hands with soap and warm water.
- Wash your bed linens, pillowcases, and towels in hot water and detergent.
- Avoid wearing eye makeup.
- Don’t share eye makeup with anyone.
- Never wear another person’s contact lenses.
- Wear eyeglasses instead of contact lenses. Throw away disposable lenses or be sure to clean extended wear lenses and all eyewear cases.
- Avoid sharing common articles such as unwashed towels and glasses.
- Wash your hands after applying the eye drops or ointment to your eye or your child’s eye.
- Do not use eye drops in a non-infected eye that were used for an infected one.
- If your child has bacterial or viral pinkeye, keep your child home from school or day care until he or she is no longer contagious.
What Are the Complications of Pinkeye?
Usually, pinkeye is a self-limited disease, either clearing up on its own or after a course of antibiotics. However, certain forms of conjunctivitis can become serious and become sight-threatening. They include conjunctivitis caused by gonorrhea or chlamydia.
How Can I Avoid Getting Pinkeye?
Viral pinkeye is highly contagious. However, maintaining proper hygiene such as frequent hand washing should minimize transmission. With regards to allergic conjunctivitis, avoiding allergens and taking proper care of your contact lenses can help reduce your risk. If someone in your household has pinkeye, be sure to wash your hands often and thoroughly. Avoid sharing washcloths, towels, pillowcases, mascara, or eyeliner with them.
Eye drops are commonly given to treat conjunctivitis.
What is conjunctivitis?
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, which is the mucous membrane covering the white of the eyes and the inner side of the eyelids.
It usually affects both eyes at the same time – although it may start in one eye and spread to the other after a day or two. It may be asymmetrical, affecting one eye more than the other.
There are many causes and the treatment will depend upon the cause.
Conjunctivitis is a common eye condition. It’s not serious, but it can be uncomfortable and irritating.
What causes conjunctivitis?
There are five different kinds of conjunctivitis, each with its own cause.
Bacterial conjunctivitis is an infection caused by bacteria, such as staphylococci, streptococci or haemophilus. These organisms may come from the patient’s own skin or upper respiratory tract or they may be caught from another person with conjunctivitis.
Viral conjunctivitis is often associated with the common cold. This may be caused by a virus called ‘adenovirus’. This type of conjunctivitis can spread rapidly between people and may cause an epidemic of conjunctivitis.
This type of conjunctivitis is caused by an organism called Chlamydia trachomatis. This organism may also affect other parts of the body and can cause the sexually transmitted infection chlamydia.
Allergic conjunctivitis is common in people who have other signs of allergic disease, such as hay fever, asthma and eczema. The conjunctivitis is often caused by antigens like pollen, dust mites or cosmetics.
Reactive conjunctivitis – chemical or irritant conjunctivitis
Some people are susceptible to chemicals in swimming pools or to smoke or fumes, and this can cause an irritation of the conjunctiva with discomfort, redness and watering. In such cases these irritants should be avoided.
What are the symptoms of conjunctivitis?
This is a condition that affects both eyes. The eyes will usually feel gritty and irritated with a sticky discharge. The eyelids may be stuck together particularly in the mornings, and there may be discharge or crusting on the eyelashes.
The eyes are red and there may be a watery discharge.
Often the eyelids are very swollen and even the conjunctiva on the white of the eye may be swollen, creating a glassy appearance.
The eyes are uncomfortable, and there may also be the generalised symptoms of a cold. Sometimes there are tender lymph nodes (swollen glands) around the ear or the neck.
This type of conjunctivitis may also spread to affect the cornea (keratitis), and it may persist for several weeks and cause hazy vision.
One or both eyes will be red with a sticky discharge and, sometimes, swollen eyelids. The cornea may also be involved in this condition.
Allergic conjunctivitis is usually associated with intense itching of the eyes.
There may be a stringy discharge and the eyes are usually intermittently red. This may occur at particular times of the year, for instance during spring and summer when there is a lot of pollen in the air.
Conjunctivitis in young children
Small children may be susceptible to infective conjunctivitis, and they may develop severe forms of the condition because of poor immune defences.
This is particularly the case in babies, and conjunctivitis in an infant aged less than one month old is a notifiable disease in the UK.
This type of conjunctivitis (ophthalmia neonatorum) may be due to an infection that has been contracted during the passage through the mother’s birth canal and may include the sexually transmitted infections, such as gonococcal or chlamydial infection.
Small babies may develop conjunctivitis from other types of infection, but swabs should always be taken in order that appropriate treatment can be given.
Small babies often have poorly developed tear drainage passages (a condition known as nasolacrimal duct obstruction).
These children are susceptible to watering eyes and they may intermittently become sticky, but this is usually not serious and most of the time this settles down with no treatment.
How is conjunctivitis treated?
This is usually treated with broad spectrum antibiotic drops or ointment, (eg chloramphenicol or fusidic acid).
The eyes should also be cleaned with cotton wool soaked in cooled boiled water to remove any crusts or stickiness.
For bacterial conjunctivitis, research evidence shows that while 64 per cent of cases will clear on their own within five days, antibiotic eye medication does lead to increased cure rates and earlier remission.
There is no effective treatment for viral conjunctivitis. But the eyes may be made more comfortable by using a lubricant ointment such as Lacri-Lube.
Cold compresses on the eyes and tablets, such as paracetamol and ibuprofen, can help the symptoms.
As this is a highly contagious condition, it’s important to ensure that a strict code of hygiene is adhered to, such as hand and face washing and no sharing of face towels.
Close contact with other people, eg at school, is not recommended for the first one to two weeks to help prevent spread of the infection.
This condition may go on for a prolonged time and in some instances corticosteroid drops have been advocated although these should only be given under the strict supervision of a doctor specialising in eye disease (ophthalmologist).
Treatment is with chlorotetracycline ointment to both eyes and tetracycline tablets in order to ensure that infection elsewhere is controlled.
Children cannot be treated with tetracycline tablets, and erythromycin is usually used for them.
Because of the possible infection of other mucous membranes any associated sexually transmitted infection should be identified and both the patient and their partners must be treated.
Conjunctivitis in infants
This needs to be taken very seriously.
Specimens are taken from the sticky discharge and such children must be seen by an ophthalmologist.
Treatment is given depending on the underlying cause of the conjunctivitis, based on results of the swabs from the laboratory.
This can be treated using topical antihistamine drops.
Drops, such as sodium cromoglicate (eg Opticrom eye drops), can be used to prevent the allergic response and they need to be used for many weeks in order to give any result.
Corticosteroid drops are occasionally used, but should only be used under the supervision of an ophthalmologist.
The main treatment should be identifying what is triggering off the allergic response and removing this source of allergen.
What is Trachoma?
Trachoma is a form of conjunctivitis that is common in the developing world, particularly in parts of Africa and Asia.
It’s exacerbated by a lack of clean water because it’s spread by contact with other infected people and by flies.
Trachoma is one of the world’s greatest causes of blindness because long-standing infection develops and causes scarring of the eyelids and eyes.
The most effective treatment is to provide a clean supply of water that allows good hygiene.
Antibiotics are also effective in treating the infection in the short term, but recurrent re-infection from within communities causes more damage.
How does the doctor make the diagnosis?
Conjunctivitis can usually be diagnosed and treated by your GP.
The doctor will usually diagnose the condition based on examination of your eyes and the history that you give.
Sometimes, a swab has to be taken from the eye – especially if there is no improvement on standard treatment.
In some cases that are severe or do not respond to treatment, you may need to see an eye specialist (ophthalmologist).
What should I pay particular attention to?
If there is any worsening of the symptoms despite treatment or if the vision deteriorates, a further consultation with your doctor should be requested even if treatment is being carried out.
If you wear contact lenses and develop symptoms of conjunctivitis, it’s important to see your doctor. People who wear contact lenses can develop a serious infection of the cornea which requires specialist treatment.
What can be done to avoid conjunctivitis?
Good hygiene of hands and face is important. There should be no sharing of face towels, especially if someone has conjunctivitis.
Conjunctivitis can spread from one eye to the other, especially when you rub your eyes. Pus and crust should be removed by bathing the eye with lukewarm salt water, which can also lessen the symptoms.
Use disposable tissues when you dry the eyes and throw them away after use. This will limit the contamination. Dispose of any antibiotic eye drops after the treatment is over.
People who suffer from conjunctivitis should have a special towel that only they use.
It is sensible to never share eye make up or eye drops with another person.
How does conjunctivitis usually progress?
Even if left untreated, most forms of conjunctivitis will gradually get better on their own in a few weeks. Allergic conjunctivitis usually continues while there’s exposure to the aggravating agent.
With appropriate treatment, the eyes are usually more comfortable within a few days, although cases of adenoviral infection may cause problems for some weeks.
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Cassidy Johns Chitali.
Luanda, Angola. +244 937705925.